Although altogether U.S. wanton oil imports have been disappearing given 2005, wanton oil imports from Canada have been increasing. As of August, Canada supposing 45% of all wanton oil imports to a United States, roughly 3 times as many as all Persian Gulf countries combined.
The United States has been a primary end for Canada’s wanton oil exports given a early 2000s. Based on information by a initial half of this year from Canada’s National Energy Board, 99% of Canada’s wanton oil exports were sent to a United States. More than half of these volumes went to petroleum refineries in a Midwest (Petroleum Administration for Defense District, PADD 2).
Import information from a U.S. Department of Commerce mention a nearest pier of entrance though not a mode of movement used to import this wanton oil. Based on entrance pier information and tube locations, it is reasonable to design that many of these imports came by tube systems such as Enbridge Mainline, Kinder Morgan Trans Mountain, Spectra Express, and TransCanada Keystone. A smaller portion, about 3%, was ecstatic by rail.
Within a United States, a informal end of wanton oil sent by rail is opposite from other modes of shipping wanton oil. While about 65% of Canadian wanton oil imports by tube and other modes not including rail are shipped to refineries in a U.S. Midwest (PADD 2), imports from Canada by rail go essentially to Gulf Coast (PADD 3) and East Coast (PADD 1) refineries.
The United States initial alien wanton oil by rail from Canada in Oct 2010, with a initial full year of shipments by rail totaling 2,000 barrels per day (b/d) in 2011. Rail shipments continued to boost by 2014, when they reached 140,000 b/d, though they have decreased in 2015. Because transporting wanton oil by rail is generally some-more costly than transporting it by pipeline, rail is used usually when suitable cost differentials exist or where tube infrastructure is insufficient.