Growth in tellurian glass fuels supply given Mar 2017 has been driven by increases in a prolongation of historically higher-priced light wanton oils. This expansion has some-more than equivalent new declines in a prolongation of middle and complicated wanton oils. As these prolongation trends continue, cost differences between certain wanton oils are narrowing, and refinery operation decisions are changing.
Two of a many critical attributes when comparing a qualities of opposite wanton oils are sulfur calm and density. EIA defines wanton oil with reduction than 1% sulfur as honeyed and wanton oil with larger than 1% sulfur as sour. Density is totalled in API gravity, an different of a petroleum liquid’s firmness relations to water. API sobriety ranges from heavy, or high, firmness (less than 25 degrees API) to light, or low, firmness (greater than 35 degrees API).
Voluntary production cuts from some members of a Organization of a Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) given Nov 2016 have reduced a tellurian supply of medium- and heavy-quality wanton oil. In addition, wanton oil prolongation outages in Canada and declines in prolongation from Mexico and Venezuela are serve shortening a sum volume of middle and complicated wanton oil accessible to refiners.
In contrast, tellurian prolongation of light wanton oil has increased. Libya and Nigeria, that are not participating in OPEC’s prolongation cuts, have augmenting prolongation of their light-sweet wanton oil in new months. In addition, most of a boost in U.S. wanton oil prolongation has come from shale formations in a Lower 48 states, that enclose essentially light-density wanton oil.
As a relations accessibility of light and complicated wanton oils has changed, cost spreads between light and complicated wanton oils have narrowed. Relatively light wanton oils are typically labelled aloft than heavier wanton oils, since light wanton oils need reduction refinery estimate to furnish high-value products such as gasoline and diesel. Lighter wanton oils are also deliberate some-more profitable since not all refiners have a apparatus required to routine heavier, denser wanton oils.
On a U.S. Gulf Coast, a reward for Louisiana Light Sweet (LLS) wanton oil over complicated Maya wanton oil from Mexico narrowed from $9 per tub (b) in Mar to $5/b in August. In a Midwest, a reward for light wanton West Texas Intermediate (WTI) over complicated Western Canada Select (WCS) also narrowed from $13/b in Mar to $10/b in August.
Differences in sulfur calm also impact a cost of wanton oil and where it can be processed. Sour wanton oil requires some-more formidable refinery estimate to accommodate low-sulfur fuel specifications and to equivocate repairs to refinery units.
Processing heavy-sour wanton oil requires additional refinery units—including crackers, cokers, and hydrotreaters—to produce light products. These additional units increase refinery complexity but also concede a refiner some-more coherence to name forms of wanton oils to squeeze and run by their refineries, potentially augmenting profitability.
Refiners’ investment decisions mostly count on a plcae of a refinery since of a cost of transporting oil. Gulf Coast refineries in a United States are typically granted with complicated Mexican and South American wanton oils. Gulf Coast refineries are some-more formidable than East Coast refineries, that are granted with lighter, sweeter Atlantic Basin wanton oils.
Because a cost of wanton oil and refinery complexity are vital factors that impact profitability, a wider cost differential between complicated and middle wanton oils and light wanton oils advantages some-more formidable refineries. In 2017, a cost differential between middle and complicated wanton oil and light wanton oil has gotten smaller, reducing a rival advantage of some some-more formidable refineries.
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