Anticipated changes in appetite expenditure by light-duty vehicles in a United States are formed on dual factors: a volume of transport and a fuel economy of a vehicles used. The Annual Energy Outlook 2017 (AEO2017) Reference box projects a diminution in light-duty car appetite use between 2018 and 2040 as improvements in fuel economy some-more than equivalent increases in light-duty car miles.
The series of vehicle-miles trafficked in a United States by light-duty vehicles set a record during 2.84 trillion miles in 2016. As a series of miles driven per car has remained comparatively solid during about 12,000 miles per vehicle, a new boost in vehicle-miles trafficked is some-more attributable to an boost in a series of vehicles in use. Light-duty vehicle-miles trafficked per year are approaching to continue to increase, eventually reaching 3.33 trillion miles trafficked in 2040.
The fuel economy of a light-duty car batch is also approaching to boost since of marketplace developments and increases in fuel economy standards for new vehicles. Although sales of new vehicles make adult a comparatively tiny apportionment of a sum light-duty car swift in any year and existent vehicles can sojourn on a highway for many years, fuel economy standards for new vehicles and a brew of vehicles purchased have long-term implications for fuel consumption.
Light-duty vehicles are generally divided into dual categories: newcomer cars and light trucks. Fuel economy and hothouse gas (GHG) standards are set for a dual categories by a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and a Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The standards practical by NHTSA and EPA are some-more difficult for newcomer cars than for light trucks, and they are dynamic formed on a car footprint, or a area of a rectangle tangible by a points of hit between a 4 wheels and a ground.
For indication year 2015, a compulsory fuel economy standards averaged about 35 miles per gallon (mpg) for newcomer cars and about 27 mpg for light trucks after holding into comment a footprint brew of vehicles sole within any category. The standards for any difficulty are now compulsory to boost over time so that a standards for indication year 2025 vehicles are approaching to strech about 53 mpg and 38 mpg, respectively.
Because correspondence fuel economy is formed on a specific exam procession that relates certain credits, correspondence fuel economy generally exceeds on-road fuel economy. On-road fuel economy is some-more applicable for estimating and forecasting appetite expenditure since it reflects how a car is indeed used. For indication year 2015, new car on-road fuel economies averaged about 31 mpg for newcomer cars and about 21 mpg for light trucks.
EIA’s AEO2017 projections simulate both a changes in a car sales brew and a fuel economy standards that are practical alone to new newcomer cars and light trucks. Despite an augmenting share of vehicles personal as light trucks, a AEO2017 Reference box projects softened fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles and a in-use car swift by 2025 and beyond.
Based on a some-more difficult fuel economy standards covering indication years by 2025 that have already been established, new on-road car fuel economy for newcomer cars is projected to boost 43% between 2015 and 2025, from 31 mpg in 2015 to 45 mpg. New on-road light lorry fuel economy is projected to boost 46% over a same period, from 21 mpg to 31 mpg. Fuel economy of a altogether car batch rises some-more slowly, given a slower turnover of light-duty vehicles.
Because light trucks are projected to make adult a flourishing share of a sum light-duty car fleet, a weighted-average fuel economy is approaching to be closer to that of light trucks. In a AEO2017 Reference case, on-road fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles increases from about 25 mpg in 2015 to 36 mpg in 2025.
The net outcome of these fuel economy trends is that light-duty car appetite expenditure is projected to diminution 12%, from 16.1 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 2017 to 14.2 quadrillion Btu in 2025 in a AEO2017 Reference case, notwithstanding projected expansion in vehicle-miles trafficked of 5% over a same period. Nearly all of this appetite expenditure is gasoline, with gasoline expenditure by light-duty vehicles projected to tumble from 8.7 million barrels per day in 2017 to 7.5 million barrels per day in 2025.
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