Gay Rights Leaders Push for Federal Civil Rights Protections

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Lauren Horbal, left, and Tiffany Cannon during their home in Nashville. They practical to lease a residence together with a friend, and a landlord refused to routine their focus when he satisfied they were a lesbian couple.

Joe Buglewicz for The New York Times

Exhilarated by a Supreme Court’s publicity of same-sex marriage, happy rights leaders have incited their sights to what they see as a subsequent large battle: receiving federal, state and internal authorised protections in employment, housing, commerce and other arenas, usually like those exclusive taste formed on race, religion, sex and inhabitant origin.

The proposals array advocates opposite many of a same eremite conservatives who opposite legalizing same-sex marriage, and who now see a insurance of what they call eremite autocracy as their many obligatory task. These opponents disagree that antidiscrimination laws will fundamentally be used to force eremite people and institutions to violate their beliefs, either by providing services for same-sex weddings or by contracting happy organisation and lesbians in church-related jobs.

Nationally, antidiscrimination laws for happy people are a patchwork with vital geographic inequities, pronounced Brad Sears, executive executive of a Williams Institute during a School of Law of a University of California, Los Angeles. “Those who don’t live on a dual coasts or in a Northeast have been left behind in terms of authorised protection,” he said.

Patricia Dawson of Pangburn, Ark., had about 15 years’ knowledge as an industrial electrician and had been a rising worker of HH Electric, an industrial contractor, for 4 years when she sensitive her trainer in 2012 that she was transitioning to womanlike and had altered her name.

Andrea Morales for The New York Times

At slightest 22 states bar taste formed on passionate orientation, and many of them also offer protections to transgender people.

Tennessee is one of a infancy of states that do not bar such discrimination. There, in East Nashville, Tiffany Cannon and Lauren Horbal suspicion they had found a ideal residence to share with a friend, and a landlord seemed prepared to lease when they practical in April.

Then he called them to ask what their attribute with any other was, Ms. Horbal, 26, recalled.

She pronounced that when a landlord schooled that she and Ms. Cannon, 25, were partners, he said, “I’m not gentle with that.” He refused to routine their application, even after they charity to lift their lease by $150, to $700 a month, Ms. Horbal said.

The women, both grill workers, are still looking for a place to live.

In many states, some internal governments have antidiscrimination laws, though they are mostly diseased or feeble enforced, pronounced Ruth Colker, an consultant on taste law during Moritz College of Law during Ohio State University.

“Typically, a chastisement for violating a city bidding is some-more same to a trade violation,” she said. “State-level penalties can be most some-more significant.”

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Decided Jun 26

• Same-sex couples can marry in 3 dozen states, though sovereign appeals courts have been divided over either states contingency concede same-sex couples to marry and commend such marriages achieved elsewhere.

As they pull for some-more state and internal safeguards, rights advocates are also starting a long-term debate for a extended sovereign defense that would give passionate course and gender temperament stable standing underneath a Civil Rights Act of 1964.

The idea is to grasp overlapping local, state and sovereign laws, an proceed that has valid effective in curbing other kinds of discrimination, pronounced Sarah Warbelow, authorised executive during a Human Rights Campaign, a happy rights advocacy group. Visible laws can not usually assent lawsuits, she said, though also deter employers and others from inequitable behavior.

Although a infancy of states miss such protections, sovereign orders and justice decisions, generally in employment, are gradually charity some-more safeguards.

With executive orders final year, President Obama barred taste formed on passionate course and gender temperament by sovereign agencies and sovereign contractors, including companies contracting about one in 5 American workers, Mr. Sears said.

At a same time, a Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, charged with enforcing sovereign law in a workplace, has dynamic that taste opposite happy men, lesbians and transgender people amounts to bootleg sex taste underneath Title VII of a Civil Rights Act, and it is bringing or endorsing lawsuits underneath that provision.

That focus of existent law is still being tested in justice and is some-more dynamic for transgender workers than for happy and lesbian workers. In a past dual years, a organisation has successfully followed 223 cases involving happy or transgender people who faced workplace nuisance or other discrimination, gaining settlements or justice orders, pronounced Chai R. Feldblum, one of a agency’s 5 commissioners.

Patricia Dawson of Pangburn, Ark., 46, hopes to join that list. Ms. Dawson, who grew adult as Steven, had some-more than 15 years’ knowledge as an industrial electrician and had been a rising worker during H H Electric, an industrial contractor, for 4 years when she sensitive her trainer in 2012 that she was transitioning to womanlike and had altered her name.

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Where Discrimination Is Banned

The United States has a patchwork of laws safeguarding opposite passionate orientation- and gender identity-based discrimination, with many states providing no insurance during all.

Based on passionate orientation

Based on passionate course and gender identity


*Generally covers places like restaurants, hotels, parks, sell stores and party venues.

Based on passionate orientation

Based on passionate course and gender identity


*Generally covers places like restaurants, hotels, parks,

sell stores and party venues.

The boss, she pronounced in a Title VII-based lawsuit brought by a American Civil Liberties Union, told her to keep her skeleton tip and not to “rock a boat” with clients.

When her temperament became apparent and report raged during a work site, she said, a trainer pronounced to her, “I’m sorry, Steve, we do good work, though we are too most of a distraction, and we am going to have to let we go.”

Ms. Dawson pronounced she was ravaged by her treatment. “I adore what we do; we get a biggest fun out of regulating things,” she pronounced in an interview. “Treating us as second-class citizens, it’s hurtful.”

Civil rights groups worked for years for an practice antidiscrimination act, an bid that was blocked by House Republicans and collapsed this year over conflict about eremite exemptions. Buoyed by a fast allege of same-sex marriage, these groups are now dynamic to find a distant wider law.

“I consider there’s a unequivocally clever accord now among advocacy groups that we need a broader check that puts taste formed on passionate course and gender temperament on a same balance as race, sacrament and gender,” pronounced Shannon P. Minter, authorised executive during a National Center for Lesbian Rights.

“No justice welfare could accomplish all of that,” Mr. Minter said.

Senator Jeff Merkley, Democrat of Oregon, pronounced he designed to deliver a check within a subsequent few months to supplement protections for gays and transgender people to a Civil Rights Act.

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Highlights: Reaction to a Marriage Ruling

The Times supposing updates and research on a landmark same-sex matrimony decision.

“People are going to comprehend that we can get married in a morning and be dismissed from your pursuit or refused entrance to a grill in a afternoon,” Mr. Merkley said. “That is unacceptable.”

But a bid will take years, he said, since it appears doubtful that Republican cabinet heads in Congress will allege such a bill.

In a rising state-by-state battles for antidiscrimination laws, a strongest antithesis has come from regressive eremite groups that have been dumbfounded by a few well-publicized cases, like that of a florist in Washington State who was fined for refusing to yield flowers for a same-sex wedding.

“We’ve got good reason to be endangered about these laws, since they’ve been found to be coercive where they’ve been enacted,” pronounced Greg Scott, clamp boss of communications during Alliance Defending Freedom, a Christian authorised group.

Russell Moore, boss of a Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission of a Southern Baptist Convention, pronounced that it was wrong to proportion eremite objections to homosexual function with racism, and that due antidiscrimination laws could “do some-more mistreat than good.”

“Some have suggested that we work out a compromise, addressing housing and practice taste and safeguarding eremite leisure for those who gainsay from a ideas of a passionate revolution,” he said. “But we have nonetheless to see any offer that would do both of those things well.”

There is some common ground. For example, underneath a Civil Rights Act, eremite organizations have a right to give welfare in employing to those of their faith, Ms. Warbelow of a Human Rights Campaign noted. In housing, sovereign manners free owner-occupied rentals with 4 or fewer units from taste provisions.

“We wouldn’t design these things to change,” Ms. Warbelow said. “We unequivocally wish L.G.B.T. people to be stable a same as those in other stable categories.”

But some disagreements, generally involving private businesses, might be unbridgeable. The vital happy and polite rights groups are joined in their antithesis to “religious liberty” bills, a priority of regressive Christian advocates, that would concede eremite vendors to exclude to offer happy couples or marriage celebrations.

“Religious autocracy does not sanction discrimination,” pronounced James D. Esseks, a executive of happy rights issues during a American Civil Liberties Union.

“It’s profoundly damaging to travel into a business open to a open and be told, ‘No, we don’t indeed offer your kind here,’ ” he said. “That’s not how America works.”