The rotating blades in an electric razor are underneath a good bargain of strain. Throughout their life, they make millions of discerning rotations, while also being theme to wear from slicing hair. This takes place in a erosive sourroundings due to H2O effluvium in a lavatory and dampness from a user’s skin.
At a same time, a blades and other components in electric razors are approaching to turn smaller each year. That is a reason because Philips a few years ago launched a European plan on make-believe of a properties of immaculate steel.
“Philips produces millions of tiny immaculate steel components with micrometre precision. We’re always looking to urge a products to say a world-leading position within electric razors,” says Professor Jan Post, conduct of Philips Corporation’s dialect for vital partnerships in consumer products.
“Thanks to formidable numerical simulations of aspect properties of immaculate steel, we’ve managed to cut years off a growth time,” says Jan Post about a partnership project, where DTU researchers have participated in a growth of a simulations and have also grown a new aspect diagnosis process.
Maintaining Europe’s position
The plan ‘PressPerfect’ (Prediction of Stainless Steel Performance After Forming and Finishing) is concurrent by Philips and upheld by EU’s Research Fund for Coal and Steel. The pattern of a EU appropriation is for a plan to minister to progressing Europe’s heading position within high-precision steel components, that is threatened by lower-cost countries.
“We were already regulating steel of a top peculiarity on a market, though we asked Professor Marcel Somers from DTU Mechanical Engineering and other European partners to assistance us serve urge a quality. We know a DTU organisation from prior collaboration. It’s one of a heading groups in Europe operative with immaculate steel in ubiquitous and quite with a effects of feverishness treatment,” says Jan Post.
Stainless steel prolongation is saying a change, in that companies are abandoning a electrochemical processes that have dominated for several years in foster of quite automatic processes.
“Electrochemical processes have proven to lead to some-more rubbish during prolongation and aloft appetite consumption. However, switching to quite automatic processes requires a good bargain of how a automatic processes and a successive finish impact a materials’ strength, inner stress, a ability to withstand corrosion, and other properties,” explains Professor Marcel Somers.
Iron in steel can change structure
The ‘Materials Design and Surface Engineering’ investigate organisation headed by Marcel Somers is meddlesome in how a aspect properties of immaculate steel change when a materials are designed.
To know a problem, it is required to know that a iron crystals in steel can take on opposite clear structures.
For electric razor components, it is clearly preferable that a crystals have an austenite structure. Austenite is characterized by being stretchable and nonetheless strong. In addition, a anti-corrosive properties are quite good (A in a figure below).
However, a automatic deformation that occurs when conceptualizing a components means that a iron clear structure changes locally. Instead of austenite, we now get martensite, that provides some-more firm and stronger steel (B in a figure below).
“You would consider that combined strength was an advantage, though if it occurs too early during a processing, it indeed poses a problem. With stronger steel, some-more force is required—and thereby aloft appetite consumption—to give it a right figure during a after stages,” explains Professor Marcel Somers.
New routine preserves gnawing properties
Even worse than a increasing appetite consumption, however, is that a ability to withstand gnawing is reduced when austenite is remade into martensite.
“Unfortunately, austenite in itself is not amply clever to withstand a consistent wear when a blades cut hair. Therefore, a steel is hardened by adding nitrogen to a aspect during a low temperature. However, a studies uncover that a inner mutation of austenite into martensite during a pattern of a hardened steel leads to beforehand growth of nitrogen compounds that connect chromium with a outcome that a gnawing insurance is lost,” explains Professor Marcel Somers.
The DTU researchers have therefore grown a new process, in that a austenite is stabilized by dissolving a tiny volume of nitrogen during a high heat before initiating a pattern work. The new routine can, for example, be carried out during by a steel retailer (C in a figure).
“The routine prevents a arrangement of martensite due to automatic deformation. The aspect diagnosis can afterwards be achieved during a low heat though nitrogen compounds being formed,” says Marcel Somers. “As an additional bonus, even improved gnawing insurgency than in a strange steel is achieved.” (D in a figure).
Model saves growth time
Another outcome of a investigate group’s work in a plan is a numerical indication able of presaging a profiles with courtesy to a combination and inner highlight of immaculate steel that has undergone aspect hardening.
“Together with a other collection grown in a project, a indication means that we can cut off years of a growth time,” says Jan Post, Philips. “We aim to be an innovative association and use many forms of simulations to envision a properties of a products. Most of a processes we use include of several steps, including thermal influence, that means that it’s really formidable to envision how a element will behave—especially when it comes to a forms of high-quality immaculate steel being complicated in a project.”
The PressPerfect plan was strictly finished in 2016, though a activities in a area continue during DTU Mechanical Engineering, says Professor Marcel Somers:
“The plan has been a healthy partial of a efforts in propinquity to aspect diagnosis of immaculate steel. We are operative on a series of projects, many of that are in partnership with companies.”