Cost is one of a pivotal factors conversion a choice of fuels and technologies used to beget electricity. Capital, maintenance, operating, and financing costs mostly change significantly opposite technologies and fuels. In addition, informal differences in construction, fuel, transmission, and apparatus costs meant that plcae also matters. While elementary metrics are infrequently used for cost comparisons, it is critical to know their limitations.
Levelized cost of appetite (LCOE), one common metric for cost comparisons opposite projects and technologies, considers a plant’s approaching lifetime and operation cycle and amortizes those costs over an insincere financial lifetime. Because LCOEs do not embody contractual terms on price, duration, or cost inflators, they should not be directly compared with other prices such as appetite squeeze agreements. Power squeeze agreements might engage project- or corporate-specific financial terms, simulate incompatible agreement terms with a appetite purchaser, or simulate a value rather than a cost of a energy.
In addition, federal, state, or inner taxation incentives or mandates might impact some costs compared with building certain appetite plants. EIA’s published LCOE estimates are presented with and yet applicable sovereign taxation incentives, yet they do not constraint a effects of state or inner programs, such as payments for correspondence with state renewable portfolio standards.
LCOE comparisons have some important limitations. For example, when comparing new ability to existent capacity, some forms of existent plants that might have been costly to build yet have comparatively low handling costs can continue to work competitively, even yet a LCOE for new plants of these forms might be aloft than a LCOE for other technologies.
Different era technologies also work in opposite ways: some are dispatchable, or can be scheduled, while others are contingent on appetite sources, such as breeze and solar, that are accessible intermittently. Some plants work around a clock, while others are expected to work usually during times of high demand. Because electricity prices differ via a day, a timing of a plant’s outlay affects a cost recovery. Also, dispatchable generating technologies (such as coal-fired steam or chief steam plants, combined-cycle plants, and simple-cycle explosion turbines or inner explosion engines) yield both appetite and ability services to accommodate daily and anniversary fluctuations in demand.
Another cost concept, a levelized avoided cost of appetite (LACE), attempts to magnitude a value to a electric complement that certain technologies provide. LACE reflects a cost that would be incurred to yield a same supply to a complement if new ability regulating a specific record were not combined and used.
For example, if a suppositious new healthy gas plant were not constructed, other technologies might need to be combined or a function rate (and fuel use) of existent plants might need to be increasing to accommodate a appetite and ability services that a suppositious new plant would have provided. A record is generally deliberate to be economically rival when a LACE exceeds a LCOE.
The EIA models that rise a electricity projections in a Annual Energy Outlook brand a least-cost ability further and dispatch strategies to accommodate appetite and ability mandate in any of 22 electricity marketplace regions given a record costs, fuels costs, and a daily and anniversary bucket patterns for any area.
Although EIA does not directly request a LCOE and LACE in a modeling, EIA calculates both LCOE and LACE for several technologies for all regions to yield discernment into factors pushing ability further and dispatch decisions. These calculations are accessible in a Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in a Annual Energy Outlook 2017 report.
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