R&D Effort Produces Magnetic Devices to Enable More Powerful X-ray Lasers

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Researchers during a Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Argonne National Laboratory have collaborated to design, build, and exam dual devices, called superconducting undulators, that could make X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) some-more powerful, versatile, compact, and durable.

X-ray FELs are absolute collection for study a little structure and other properties of samples, such as proteins that are pivotal to drug design, outlandish materials applicable to wiring and appetite applications, and chemistry that is executive to industrial processes like fuel production.

The new growth bid was encouraged by SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory’s ascent of a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a nation’s usually X-ray FEL. This upgrade, now underway, is famous as LCLS-II. All existent X-ray FELS, including both LCLS and LCLS-II, use permanent magnet undulators to beget heated pulses of X-rays. These inclination furnish X-ray light by flitting high-energy bunches of electrons by swapping captivating fields constructed by a array of permanent magnets.

This Berkeley Lab-developed device, a niobium tin superconducting undulator prototype, set a record in captivating margin strength for a device of a kind. This form of undulator could be used to shake nucleus beams to evacuate light for a subsequent era of X-ray lasers. Image credit: Marilyn Chung/Berkeley Lab

Superconducting undulators (SCUs) offer another technical resolution and are deliberate among a many earnest technologies to urge a opening of a subsequent era FELs, and of other forms of light sources, such as Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source (ALS) and Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source (APS).

SCUs reinstate a permanent magnets in a undulator with superconducting coils. The antecedent SCUs have successfully constructed stronger captivating fields than required undulators of a same size. Higher fields, in turn, can furnish higher-energy free-electron laser light to open adult a broader operation of experiments.

Berkeley Lab’s 1.5-meter-long antecedent undulator, that uses a superconducting element famous as niobium-tin (Nb3Sn), set a record in captivating margin strength for a device of a pattern during contrast during a Lab in Sep 2016.

“This is a much-anticipated innovation,” concluded Wim Leemans, Director, Accelerator Technology and Applied Physics (ATAP) . “Higher opening in a smaller footprint is something that advantages everybody – a laboratories that horde a facilities, a appropriation agencies, and above all, a user community.”

Argonne’s exam of another superconducting material, niobium-titanium, successfully reached a opening goal, and additionally upheld a brood of peculiarity tests. Niobium-titanium has a reduce limit captivating margin strength than niobium-tin, yet is serve along in a development.

“The superconducting record in general, and generally with a niobium tin, lived adult to a guarantee of being a top performer,” pronounced Ross Schlueter, Head of a Magnetics Department in Berkeley Lab’s Engineering Division. “We’re really vehement about this universe record. This device allows we to get a most aloft photon energy” from a given nucleus lamp energy.

“We have imagination here both in free-electron laser undulators, as demonstrated in a purpose in heading a construction of LCLS-II’s undulators, and in synchrotron undulator growth during a ALS,” remarkable Soren Prestemon, Director of a Berkeley Center for Magnet Technology (BCMT), that brings together a Accelerator Technology and Applied Physics Division (ATAP) and Engineering Division, to pattern and build a operation of captivating inclination for scientific, medical, and other applications.

“The Engineering Division has a prolonged story of forefront investigate on undulators, and this work continues that tradition,” states Henrik von der Lippe, Director, Engineering Division.

Diego Arbelaez, a lead operative in a growth of Berkeley Lab’s device, pronounced progressing work during a Lab in building superconducting undulator prototypes for a opposite plan were useful in informing a latest design, yet there were still copiousness of challenges.

Niobium-tin is a crisp element that can't be drawn into a wire. For unsentimental use, a open wire, that contains a components that will form niobium-tin when heat-treated, is used for circuitous a undulator coils. The full undulator curl is afterwards heat-treated in a furnace during 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit.

The niobium-tin handle is wound around a steel support to form firmly wrapped coils in an swapping arrangement. The pointing of a circuitous is vicious for a opening of a device. Arbelaez said, “One of a questions was either we can say pointing in a circuitous even yet we are going by these vast feverishness variations.”

After a feverishness treatment, a coils are placed in a mold and assimilated with glue to reason a superconducting coils in place. To grasp a superconducting state and denote a record-setting performance, a device was enthralled in a bath of glass helium to cold it down to about reduction 450 degrees Fahrenheit.

Another plea was in building a quick shutoff to forestall inauspicious disaster during an eventuality famous as “quenching.” During a quench, there is a remarkable detriment of superconductivity that can be caused by a tiny volume of feverishness generation. Uncontrolled quenching could lead to fast heating that competence repairs a niobium-tin and surrounding copper and hurt a device.

This is a vicious emanate for a niobium-tin undulators due to a unusual stream densities they can support. Berkeley Lab’s Marcos Turqueti led a bid to operative a quench-protection complement that can detect a occurrence of quenching within a integrate thousandths of a second and close down a effects within 10 thousandths of a second.

Arbelaez also helped digest a complement to scold for magnetic-field errors while a undulator is in a superconducting state.

SLAC’s Paul Emma, a accelerator production lead for LCLS-II, concurrent a superconducting undulator growth effort.

Emma pronounced that a niobium-tin superconducting undulator grown during Berkeley Lab shows intensity yet might need some-more endless stability RD than Argonne’s niobium-titanium prototype. Argonne progressing grown superconducting undulators that are in use during a APS, and Berkeley Lab also hopes to supplement superconducting undulators during a ALS.

“With superconducting undulators,” Emma said, “you don’t indispensably reduce a cost yet we get improved opening for a same widen of undulator.”

A superconducting undulator of an homogeneous length to a permanent captivating undulator could furnish light that is during slightest dual to 3 times – maybe adult to 10 times – some-more powerful, and could also entrance a wider operation in X-ray wavelengths, Emma said, producing a some-more fit FEL.

Superconducting undulators also have no perceivable relocating parts, so they could feasible be tuned some-more fast with high precision. Superconductors also are distant reduction disposed to repairs by high-intensity deviation than permanent-magnet materials, a poignant emanate in high-power accelerators such as those that will be commissioned for LCLS-II.

There appears to be a transparent trail brazen to building superconducting undulators for upgrades of existent and new X-ray free-electron lasers, Emma said, and for other forms of light sources.

“Superconducting undulators will be a record we go to eventually, either it’s in a subsequent 10 or 20 years,” he said. “They are absolute adequate to furnish a light we are going to need – we consider it’s going to happen. People know it’s a large adequate step, and we’ve got to get there.”

James Symons, Berkeley Lab’s Associate Director for Physical Sciences, said, “We demeanour brazen to building on this bid by furthering a RD on superconducting undulator systems.

The Advanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, and Linac Coherent Light Source are DOE Office of Science User Facilities. The growth of a superconducting undulator prototypes was upheld by a DOE’s Office of Science.”

Source: LBL

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Researchers during a Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Argonne National Laboratory have collaborated to design, build, and exam dual devices, called superconducting undulators, that could make X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) some-more powerful, versatile, compact, and durable.

X-ray FELs are absolute collection for study a little structure and other properties of samples, such as proteins that are pivotal to drug design, outlandish materials applicable to wiring and appetite applications, and chemistry that is executive to industrial processes like fuel production.

The new growth bid was encouraged by SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory’s ascent of a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a nation’s usually X-ray FEL. This upgrade, now underway, is famous as LCLS-II. All existent X-ray FELS, including both LCLS and LCLS-II, use permanent magnet undulators to beget heated pulses of X-rays. These inclination furnish X-ray light by flitting high-energy bunches of electrons by swapping captivating fields constructed by a array of permanent magnets.

This Berkeley Lab-developed device, a niobium tin superconducting undulator prototype, set a record in captivating margin strength for a device of a kind. This form of undulator could be used to shake nucleus beams to evacuate light for a subsequent era of X-ray lasers. Image credit: Marilyn Chung/Berkeley Lab

Superconducting undulators (SCUs) offer another technical resolution and are deliberate among a many earnest technologies to urge a opening of a subsequent era FELs, and of other forms of light sources, such as Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source (ALS) and Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source (APS).

SCUs reinstate a permanent magnets in a undulator with superconducting coils. The antecedent SCUs have successfully constructed stronger captivating fields than required undulators of a same size. Higher fields, in turn, can furnish higher-energy free-electron laser light to open adult a broader operation of experiments.

Berkeley Lab’s 1.5-meter-long antecedent undulator, that uses a superconducting element famous as niobium-tin (Nb3Sn), set a record in captivating margin strength for a device of a pattern during contrast during a Lab in Sep 2016.

“This is a much-anticipated innovation,” concluded Wim Leemans, Director, Accelerator Technology and Applied Physics (ATAP) . “Higher opening in a smaller footprint is something that advantages everybody – a laboratories that horde a facilities, a appropriation agencies, and above all, a user community.”

Argonne’s exam of another superconducting material, niobium-titanium, successfully reached a opening goal, and additionally upheld a brood of peculiarity tests. Niobium-titanium has a reduce limit captivating margin strength than niobium-tin, yet is serve along in a development.

“The superconducting record in general, and generally with a niobium tin, lived adult to a guarantee of being a top performer,” pronounced Ross Schlueter, Head of a Magnetics Department in Berkeley Lab’s Engineering Division. “We’re really vehement about this universe record. This device allows we to get a most aloft photon energy” from a given nucleus lamp energy.

“We have imagination here both in free-electron laser undulators, as demonstrated in a purpose in heading a construction of LCLS-II’s undulators, and in synchrotron undulator growth during a ALS,” remarkable Soren Prestemon, Director of a Berkeley Center for Magnet Technology (BCMT), that brings together a Accelerator Technology and Applied Physics Division (ATAP) and Engineering Division, to pattern and build a operation of captivating inclination for scientific, medical, and other applications.

“The Engineering Division has a prolonged story of forefront investigate on undulators, and this work continues that tradition,” states Henrik von der Lippe, Director, Engineering Division.

Diego Arbelaez, a lead operative in a growth of Berkeley Lab’s device, pronounced progressing work during a Lab in building superconducting undulator prototypes for a opposite plan were useful in informing a latest design, yet there were still copiousness of challenges.

Niobium-tin is a crisp element that can't be drawn into a wire. For unsentimental use, a open wire, that contains a components that will form niobium-tin when heat-treated, is used for circuitous a undulator coils. The full undulator curl is afterwards heat-treated in a furnace during 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit.

The niobium-tin handle is wound around a steel support to form firmly wrapped coils in an swapping arrangement. The pointing of a circuitous is vicious for a opening of a device. Arbelaez said, “One of a questions was either we can say pointing in a circuitous even yet we are going by these vast feverishness variations.”

After a feverishness treatment, a coils are placed in a mold and assimilated with glue to reason a superconducting coils in place. To grasp a superconducting state and denote a record-setting performance, a device was enthralled in a bath of glass helium to cold it down to about reduction 450 degrees Fahrenheit.

Another plea was in building a quick shutoff to forestall inauspicious disaster during an eventuality famous as “quenching.” During a quench, there is a remarkable detriment of superconductivity that can be caused by a tiny volume of feverishness generation. Uncontrolled quenching could lead to fast heating that competence repairs a niobium-tin and surrounding copper and hurt a device.

This is a vicious emanate for a niobium-tin undulators due to a unusual stream densities they can support. Berkeley Lab’s Marcos Turqueti led a bid to operative a quench-protection complement that can detect a occurrence of quenching within a integrate thousandths of a second and close down a effects within 10 thousandths of a second.

Arbelaez also helped digest a complement to scold for magnetic-field errors while a undulator is in a superconducting state.

SLAC’s Paul Emma, a accelerator production lead for LCLS-II, concurrent a superconducting undulator growth effort.

Emma pronounced that a niobium-tin superconducting undulator grown during Berkeley Lab shows intensity yet might need some-more endless stability RD than Argonne’s niobium-titanium prototype. Argonne progressing grown superconducting undulators that are in use during a APS, and Berkeley Lab also hopes to supplement superconducting undulators during a ALS.

“With superconducting undulators,” Emma said, “you don’t indispensably reduce a cost yet we get improved opening for a same widen of undulator.”

A superconducting undulator of an homogeneous length to a permanent captivating undulator could furnish light that is during slightest dual to 3 times – maybe adult to 10 times – some-more powerful, and could also entrance a wider operation in X-ray wavelengths, Emma said, producing a some-more fit FEL.

Superconducting undulators also have no perceivable relocating parts, so they could feasible be tuned some-more fast with high precision. Superconductors also are distant reduction disposed to repairs by high-intensity deviation than permanent-magnet materials, a poignant emanate in high-power accelerators such as those that will be commissioned for LCLS-II.

There appears to be a transparent trail brazen to building superconducting undulators for upgrades of existent and new X-ray free-electron lasers, Emma said, and for other forms of light sources.

“Superconducting undulators will be a record we go to eventually, either it’s in a subsequent 10 or 20 years,” he said. “They are absolute adequate to furnish a light we are going to need – we consider it’s going to happen. People know it’s a large adequate step, and we’ve got to get there.”

James Symons, Berkeley Lab’s Associate Director for Physical Sciences, said, “We demeanour brazen to building on this bid by furthering a RD on superconducting undulator systems.

The Advanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, and Linac Coherent Light Source are DOE Office of Science User Facilities. The growth of a superconducting undulator prototypes was upheld by a DOE’s Office of Science.”

Source: LBL

Comment this news or article