Islamophobia represents a form of injustice churned with informative dogmatism as a whole, rather than simply dogmatism of Muslims and Islam, according to a new paper from a Rice University sociologist.
“The Racialization of Islam in a United States: Islamophobia, Hate Crimes and ‘Flying While Brown’” is published in a biography Religions. Author Craig Considine, a techer in sociology during Rice, reviewed some-more than 40 news articles and referenced dozens of educational studies relating to a practice of American Muslims and a stereotypical depictions of Muslims. His investigate suggested several commentary from a several articles and investigate papers that support his evidence that injustice is a mystic form of Islamophobia, that has been skewed as a form of eremite disposition that oppresses U.S. Muslims on a drift that Islam is sinful and antithetical to American values.
“We mostly hear that since Muslims are not a race, people can't be extremist for aggressive Muslims,” Considine said. “This evidence does not smoke-stack up. It is a uncomplicated approach of meditative that overlooks a purpose that competition plays in Islamophobic hatred crimes.”
Considine summarizes a commentary below:
- In 2016 alone, incidents of Islamophobia, including acts of assault and pacifist harassment, rose by 57 percent.
- More than half of hatred crimes in a U.S. in 2015 – 59.2 percent – were related to a race/ethnicity/ancestry bias. Only 19.7 percent of hatred crimes were related to a eremite bias, and 17.7 percent to a passionate course bias.
- More than 50 percent of Muslims gifted some form of feeling between 2010 and 2014, and some-more than one-third of Muslims felt they had been targeted on a basement of being identified as Muslim.
- News outlets give drastically some-more coverage to crimes by Muslims. Attacks by Muslim perpetrators received, on average, 449 percent some-more coverage than crimes carried out by non-Muslims.
- Out of some-more than 1,000 Hollywood films depicting Arabs, 932 of these films decorated them in a stereotypical or disastrous light. For example, Arabs/Muslims were assembled as a meaningful figure: a bearded, dark-skinned, turban-wearing terrorist. Only 12 films decorated these people in a certain way.
Considine pronounced that in annoy of a racialization of Islam, a competition of Muslims in a U.S. is heterogeneous. Of a approximately 3.3 million Muslims of all ages vital in a U.S. in 2017, no singular secular or secular organisation accounts for some-more than 30 percent of a sum population. Thirty percent of U.S. Muslims report themselves as white, 23 percent as black, 21 percent as Asian, 6 percent as Hispanic and 19 percent as other or churned race. In addition, 81 percent of Muslims in a U.S. are American citizens.
“Despite a racial, secular and informative farrago of a U.S. Muslim population, they continue to be expel as potentially melancholy persons formed on viewed secular and informative characteristics,” Considine said.
He also pronounced a racially encouraged incidents of hatred crime examined in this paper – including one occurrence where a Sikh in Mesa, Ariz., was shot and killed in a days following Sept. 11 by a male who pronounced he wanted to “kill a Muslim” in plea for a militant attacks – advise that Islamophobia does not go in a area of “rational” critique of Islam or Muslims. In this situation, a perpetrator confused a man’s brave and turban as a illustration of Islam, and effectively used his “race” to specify and eventually mistreat him in a misfortune approach imaginable, Considine said.
“This occurrence and other incidents referenced in a paper are examples of how Muslims have been racialized and so subjected to a kind of racism,” he said. “This has led to U.S. adults removing an thought of who a supposed ‘bad guys’ are and behaving formed on this knowledge. Taking a ‘colorblind’ bargain of Islamophobia – that is, to boot a purpose that competition plays in anti-Muslim injustice – legitimizes certain racialized practices and maintains inequalities such as secular profiling during airports, military brutality, housing and pursuit taste and voter disenfranchisement.”
Considine hopes a paper will lift recognition of a racialization of Islam in a U.S. and assistance to opposite a rising Islamophobia opposite a country.
“We would be misled to boot a purpose that competition plays in incidents where Muslims and non-Muslims are targeted due to stereotypes of ‘Muslim identity,’” he said. “This identity, insofar as a American context goes, appears to be weighted with secular meanings.”
The investigate is accessible online at www.mdpi.com/2077-1444/8/9/165.
Source: Rice University
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