An investigate of inundate claims in several southeast Houston suburbs from 1999 to 2009 found that a Federal Emergency Management Agency’s 100-year inundate plain maps — a apparatus that U.S. officials use to establish both inundate risk and word premiums — unsuccessful to constraint 75 percent of inundate indemnification from 5 critical floods, nothing of that reached a threshold of a 100-year event.
The investigate by hydrologists and land-use experts during Rice University and Texas AM University during Galveston was published in a biography Natural Hazards Review usually days before Hurricane/Tropical Storm Harvey inundated a Houston segment and caused some of a many inauspicious flooding in U.S. history.
“The takeaway from this study, that was borne out in Harvey, is that many waste start in areas outward FEMA’s 100-year inundate plain,” pronounced investigate co-author Antonia Sebastian, a investigate associate during Rice’s Severe Storm Prediction, Education and Evacuation from Disasters (SSPEED) Center and a postdoctoral researcher during Delft University of Technology in a Netherlands.
“What we’ve attempted to show, both with this investigate and several others, is that it is probable to do better,” pronounced lead author Russell Blessing, a Texas AM-Galveston connoisseur tyro with corner appointments during a SSPEED Center and Texas AM-Galveston’s Center for Texas Beaches and Shores. “There are innovative computational and hydrological collection accessible to build some-more predictive maps.”
In a new study, Blessing, Sebastian and co-author Sam Brody, a highbrow of sea sciences during Texas AM-Galveston, executive of the Center for Texas Beaches and Shores and a SSPEED Center investigator, examined a Armand Bayou watershed in southeast Harris County. Armand Bayou’s 60-square-mile watershed includes portions of Houston, Pasadena, Deer Park, La Porte and Taylor Lake Village, as good as unincorporated portions of Harris County.
Five vital sleet events occurred in a investigate area between 1999-2009. They were Hurricane Ike (2008), Tropical Storms Erin (2007) and Allison (2001, and dual rainstorms that caused flooding in 2006 and 2009.
Hydrologists mostly impersonate sleet events and flooding events with a statistic famous as “return interval.” A 100-year inundate has a 100-year lapse interval, though Blessing pronounced that does not meant such a charge is usually approaching to start any 100 years. Rather, it means there is a 1-in-100 chance, or a 1 percent chance, that a eventuality will start in any given year. Thus, a 50-year eventuality would have a 2 percent possibility of occurring any year, a 10-year eventuality would have a 10 percent chance, and so on.
Brody pronounced one problem with FEMA’s 100-year inundate plain maps is that they assume that flooding will usually take place in one dimension, that is, possibly downstream or upstream, and not perpendicular to a channel.
“That arrogance doesn’t reason when you’re in unequivocally low-lying areas, like Armand Bayou or other coastal watersheds that are really flat,” he said. “When flooding sleet accumulates in these areas, it can upsurge in usually about any instruction depending on how high it gets.”
Another emanate with FEMA’s maps is their skip of granularity. Brody and Blessing pronounced a form of dirt (such as clay contra sand) and a approach land is used (such as a petrify parking lot or a propagandize playground) have poignant impacts on flooding, and FEMA’s models mostly use a singular sequence for whole neighborhoods or groups of neighborhoods. In so doing, they skip out on small-scale facilities that can significantly impact flooding.
Sebastian pronounced focusing on 100-year events is also cryptic since short, heated rainfall events that don’t accommodate a 100-year threshold can still means critical flooding.
“In Armand Bayou, a 100-year rainfall eventuality is one that drops 13.5 inches of sleet in a 24-hour period,” she said. “In reality, we also knowledge most some-more heated rainfalls in reduction time. So, for example, when it rains 6 inches in dual or 3 hours, it can also means critical flooding.”
In several other studies, including a series that examined flooding in a Clear Creek watershed, Blessing, Brody, Sebastian and SSPEED colleagues have shown that other approaches, like distributed hydrologic displaying and probabilistic inundate plain mapping, can be distant some-more predictive of inundate indemnification and inundate risk.
The investigate was upheld by a National Science Foundation. The commentary and opinions reported are those of a authors and are not indispensably permitted by a appropriation organizations or those who supposing assistance with several aspects of a study.
Source: Rice University
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