Laid-Off Americans, Required to Zip Lips on Way Out, Grow Bolder

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“I have listened from workers who are aroused of retaliation,” pronounced Senator Richard Blumenthal, Democrat of Connecticut. “They are told they can contend whatever they want, solely they can’t contend anything disastrous about being fired.”

Lawyers pronounced a divide Mr. Peña and other workers intent to in their subdivision agreements is slight in final contracts with employees who are paid separation as they leave, either they were laid off or quiescent voluntarily.

“It’s a very, really common practice,” pronounced Sheena R. Hamilton, an practice warn during Dowd Bennett in St. Louis who represents companies in workplace cases. “I’ve never endorsed a allotment that didn’t have a proviso like that.”

Marco Peña was among a record workers Abbott laid off. He chose not to pointer an agreement, including a nondisparagement clause, given to all vacating employees.

Joshua Lott for The New York Times

But former Abbott employees pronounced a supplies had stopped them from vocalization plainly with inaugurated officials or appearing during congressional hearings.

“It is really frustrating that we can’t share your story with a public,” pronounced one former Abbott manager, who had worked for a association for 13 years, rising to an critical supervisory position. He had prepared a 90-page primer for his unfamiliar replacements display how to perform each fact of his work. With a infirm child who requires medical care, he pronounced he had to take his separation and a nondisparagement clause, given it extended his medical benefits. So he asked to sojourn anonymous.

“I’ve been laid off before, we can know that,” he said. “But these visas were meant to fill in gaps for resources that are tough to find. This time a association indeed asked me to send my believe to somebody else. That changes a equation.”

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According to sovereign rules, proxy visas famous as H-1Bs are for foreigners with “a physique of specialized knowledge” not straightforwardly accessible in a labor market. The visas should be postulated usually when they will not undercut a income or “adversely impact a operative conditions” of Americans.

But in a past 5 years, by loopholes in a rules, tens of thousands of American workers have been transposed by foreigners on H-1B and other proxy visas, according to Prof. Hal Salzman, a labor force consultant during Rutgers University.

In March, dual Americans who had been laid off in 2014 by a New England energy company, Eversource Energy, spoke during a news discussion in Hartford even yet they had sealed nondisparagement agreements. Craig Diangelo, 63, and Judy Konopka, 56, pronounced many of a 220 people confronting exclusion had been compulsory as partial of their separation to sight Indian immigrants with H-1B and other visas.

In a protest, vacating employees posted American flags outward their cubicles. As they left, they took a flags down. Mr. Diangelo took a sketch of a flags in his final days during a utility. At a time, he and Ms. Konopka spoke with reporters, including from The New York Times, yet they did not wish to be quoted, even yet their names.

In January, Senator Blumenthal speckled a sketch in an essay in Computerworld, a tech attention publication, and was perturbed to learn of a layoffs so prolonged after they happened. In a minute to a company, a senator questioned either a dismissals were “accomplished by apparent abuses” of visas, and he demanded assurances that former employees would not be sued if they spoke with supervision officials.

In a forceful reply, a Eversource ubiquitous counsel, Gregory B. Butler, pronounced a association had not disregarded any laws, and a nondisparagement supplies were a “standard form release” that did not shorten former employees from deliberating their layoffs “with we or anyone else.”

Mr. Diangelo pronounced he was not so certain a association would refrain from authorised movement if he spoke to a news media. But, he said, “I finally got to a indicate where we am sleepy of stealing in a shadows.”

Sara Blackwell, a warn representing former Abbott employees, spoke during a entertainment of workers in April.

Joshua Lott for The New York Times

Two years later, his work with a internal tech constrictive association pays $45,000 a year reduction than his Eversource salary. Many of his former co-workers are also struggling, Mr. Diangelo said, yet stay still to equivocate inspiring a company.

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At Abbott, executives announced in Feb that record jobs would be taken over by a Indian association Wipro. Senator Durbin, who is from Illinois, criticized a layoffs and pronounced Abbott’s nondisparagement proviso was “overly broad.”

According to a duplicate of a agreement, that proviso read, in part: “You determine to make each bid to say and strengthen a repute of Abbott and a products and agents.”

A orator for Abbott, Scott Stoffel, pronounced a changes were partial of a efforts to “remain globally rival and a clever U.S. employer.” He pronounced a association would keep “the immeasurable majority” of a tech jobs in a United States. Nondisparagement clauses like Abbott’s are “very common” in separation agreements, he said.

Mr. Peña pronounced he could means to spin down his separation remuneration since he is singular and has no children. “I was a usually one with a ability to put my feet down,” he said.

He perceived consistently certain work reviews, and a consequence lift weeks before his layoff, he said. With no denote that bad opening was a factor, he believed it was a magnitude to cut costs.

“Anything that had to understanding with record and solution problems, that was my satisfaction, my passion,” Mr. Peña said. “But these days that has no temperament on a preference creation of a executives in a aloft positions.”

Abbott attempted to revoke a purpose of foreigners in a layoffs. Only about 20 percent of a workers brought in by Wipro would be foreigners on H-1B visas, Mr. Stoffel said, while a rest would be American workers.

Mr. Peña pronounced he had been told during initial that he would sight his Wipro replacements. But after Senator Durbin’s rebuke, Wipro workers were lerned usually by employees who would be remaining with Abbott, he said.

He and 13 other former Abbott employees filed sovereign claims observant they faced taste since of their ages and American citizenship, pronounced Sara Blackwell, a warn representing them. Those claims are confidential. Ms. Blackwell orderly a pub assembly where Abbott workers were invited to weep their jobs. Of a tiny organisation that came, usually Mr. Peña spoke up.

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On Apr 20, about dual dozen employees of EmblemHealth, a health insurer, protested outward a offices in Manhattan after a association announced that it would send about 200 tech jobs to Cognizant, another record outsourcing company. Even yet they were in a travel holding signs, a employees declined to have their names used in news reports.

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