Proposed fuel economy and hothouse gas emissions standards would boost fuel economy and revoke diesel expenditure in medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. Unlike light-duty vehicles, that have been theme to fuel economy standards given a 1970s, a initial proviso of medium- and heavy-duty car standards was recently implemented, starting with indication year 2014. The due Phase 2 standards—issued jointly by a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration—would take outcome in indication year 2021 for many medium- and heavy-duty car classes and boost in rigidity by indication year 2027. These standards are projected to revoke diesel expenditure by 0.5 million barrels of oil homogeneous per day (boe/d) by 2040.
As described in an Issues in Focus research as partial of EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook 2016 (AEO2016), a due Phase 2 standards residence specific car categories, including multiple tractors, heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans, vocational vehicles, and, for a initial time, trailers.
Vehicles are divided into opposite classes formed on their sum car weight rating (GVWR). Light-duty cars and trucks (typical newcomer vehicles) weighing 8,500 pounds or rebate make adult classes 1 and 2a (Class 2 is divided into 2a and 2b), and are not regulated by a due Phase 2 standards. These light-duty vehicles make adult many of a vehicles on a highway and accounted for 59% of 2015 transport appetite expenditure in a United States. The Phase 2 standards impact classes 2b by 8, covering a medium- and heavy-duty vehicles that accounted for about 20% of U.S. transport appetite expenditure in 2015.
Heavy-duty pickups and vans, such as 3/4- and 1-ton pickup trucks used on construction sites, embody difficulty 2b and 3 vehicles with a GVWR between 8,501 and 14,000 pounds. They would be compulsory to accommodate an annual 2.5% per year rebate in acceptable emissions from indication years 2021 to 2027.
Vocational vehicles embody a far-reaching operation of lorry styles, such as delivery, refuse, utility, dump, and concrete trucks, as good as propagandize buses, ambulances, and draw trucks. This difficulty includes difficulty 2b by 8 vehicles with a GVWR of 8,501 pounds and above. A 16% rebate in CO dioxide (CO2) emissions for diesel-powered vehicles would be required, with revoke reductions in emissions for gasoline-powered vehicles and exceptions for certain car types.
Combination tractors—semitrucks that typically lift trailers—are difficulty 7 and 8 vehicles with a GVWR of 26,001 pounds and above. They would be compulsory to revoke CO2 emissions by adult to 24% compared to a indication year 2017 baseline. Trailers were not regulated in Phase 1, though they would need to urge aerodynamics and rolling insurgency with opposite rigidity depending on a type.
By 2040 a normal fuel economy of new medium- and heavy-duty vehicles opposite all regulated classes would strech 10.6 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent, representing a 33% alleviation compared to a Reference case. Because vehicles can final for decades, a turnover of a car swift is comparatively slow, nonetheless newer vehicles are mostly driven some-more intensively than comparison ones. Consequently, a normal fuel economy of a whole swift increases some-more gradually. In a Reference case, sum swift medium- and heavy-duty car fuel economy usually increases somewhat as vehicles made underneath Phase 1 standards turn entirely adopted.
Small changes in fuel economy totalled in terms of miles per gallon (mpg) during a revoke finish of a operation can have outsized effects. For instance, switching from an 8-mpg car to a 10-mpg car provides a fuel expenditure assets of 0.025 gallons per mile of travel—the disproportion between 0.125 gallons used to transport a mile in a 8-mpg car and 0.1 gallons used by a 10-mpg car to transport a same distance. In contrast, starting with a 20-mpg vehicle, fuel economy contingency boost to 40 mpg to furnish a same assets per mile—the disproportion between 0.05 gallons per mile used by a 20-mpg car and 0.025 gallons per mile used by a 40-mpg vehicle. This illustrates how clearly tiny changes in fuel economy for vast trucks can save a poignant volume of fuel. For medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, a volume of car transport is not approaching to change significantly compared with a Reference case, so changes in fuel economy tend to be directly reflected in fuel consumption.
Unlike light-duty fuel economy standards, that especially impact gasoline consumption, standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles will essentially impact diesel fuel consumption. As such, diesel expenditure by medium- and heavy-duty vehicles in a Phase 2 Standards box is 18% revoke (0.5 million boe/d) in 2040 compared to a Reference case. Gasoline and choice fuel expenditure is also reduced, though to a obtuse extent, since fuels other than diesel comment for usually about 10% of expenditure from medium- and heavy-duty vehicles.